Summary of the Five Disciplines of a Learning Organization by Rea Gill Detailed in The Fifth Discipline by Peter Senge (1994) 1 Systems Thinking Senge (1994) describes systems thinking as a “discipline that involves approaching problem solving and addressing issues, not by focusing on isolated events or parts of the whole but rather […]
About Michael Soulé
Experience in school administration, teaching, mentoring and project development, available for consultations, school mentoring,
Entries by Michael Soulé
Basic Principles of a Living Organization by Rea Gill There are two major challenges to the ongoing creative activity of an evolving organization, much like there are two elements to managing our individual lives. We have to deal within each moment and each day with what is living growing and evolving immediately before […]
Announcing a new professional development opportunity in administration and leadership for administrators, staff, trustees, faculty and parents of Waldorf schools this summer in NY, Ann Arbor and the Pacific NW. Join us for a week intensive this summer Working Together in Community: Conversation, Teamwork, Facilitation and Decision-making Waldorf Institute of S Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan, July […]
This article was published in the British journal, Kindling. Contact information is at the end of the article. Chaos in everyday life – about cleaning and caring Linda Thomas When it comes to housekeeping, the concepts of disorder and chaos often get confused. In our households, order is often related to a certain […]
The Case against Transparency and Accountability If I had a nickel for every time someone said the phrase, “We need more accountability and transparency in our school!” I could buy a lot of lattes for my wife! Instead I am launching a campaign to rid our organizations of both words. I can’t remember when either […]
This newsletter focuses on accountability. It is a topic of conversation and a concern, not only in every Waldorf School, but also in every organization today. Most of the books, articles and essays connect accountability to improving performance and outline processes to help individuals or groups become more accountable by setting clear goals, having clear roles and responsibilities, having systems to evaluate employee performance, giving people incentives, and creating clear consequences when individuals fall short of goals. All of these suggestions can be useful in certain situations, but they fall short of being helpful to those of us working in highly collaborative horizontal organizations.
There are two kinds of accountability in an organization – individual and organizational – and while they are related and stem from the same question of whether we are doing what we said we would do, there are fundamental differences that make it useful to explore them separately. Ultimately they are both connected to questions of congruence and integrity. For the individual, integrity is an inner question. For an organization, integrity is more of a social question that lies in the ways people in the organization treat one another and how they work together to serve the organization’s mission.
In the history of Waldorf education and of organizational development in general, communities and organizations move through phases of development from the unconscious, implicit and intuitive to the more conscious, explicit and objective. In all the phases of development, the way in which people form and renew agreements is key to accountability throughout the organization.
Members of a small school just getting started, for example, do not usually have the inclination or the time to define everything in detail. In a pioneer initiative, where many things are done together and the group is finding its way, agreements are often unconscious or in response to emerging situations.
To understand horizontal accountability (HA), it is easier to begin with its absence. When there is little or no horizontal accountability in an organization, people tend to engage in blame, finger pointing, passing the buck and conflict avoidance. To the degree that these are present in an organization, horizontal accountability doesn’t exist.
Most organizations have strong vertical accountability. That is, accountability to management and the chain of command, but that tends to ensure compliance rather than commitment and goal focus. It also does little to address the flow of communication and interaction between those who do the work.
Horizontal accountability can be defined as the degree to which people communicate across the organization, problem solve with all employees and teams, and build accountability for superior outcomes. Horizontal accountability creates trust between employees and management.
Accountability is a nebulous concept subject to multiple interpretations and understandings: it means different things to different people. According to traditional conceptions, an accountability relationship exists when a principal delegates authority to an agent to act in their interests. Central to this view is that only those with formal authority over an agent – those that have delegated authority to it – have the right to claim accountability. This approach is often used to conceptualise the accountability relationship between politicians and the electorate, or company directors and shareholders. Within this traditional view, holding an agent to account requires clearly defined roles and responsibilities, regular reporting and monitoring of behaviour against these roles, and the ability for principals to impose sanctions for breaches of responsibilities. Accountability is largely seen as an end stage activity where judgement is passed on results and actions already taken.
Books on administration, governance and school organization, along with most other Waldorf related publications.
Steiner Books publishes hundreds of titles related to all aspects of Waldorf education, Anthroposophy and other spiritual topics.
RS College Bookstore carries a large selection of Waldorf related books.
Idea Exchange – Everything starts and ends with a question
LeadTogether is an independent blog and resource center offered free of charge to help those interested and involved in Waldorf schools connect with new ideas and resources. If you have question or idea and would like a free consultation, please contact us at Michael@leadtogether.org, 206-245-0100.